AND……..IT’S EXAM TIME….:(

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So now to all my fellow biochem classmates, it’s that wonderful time again EXAMS!!!!!!!

The entire course outline to be precise and brief and what are the major topics to be noted as a reminder are as follows:

1. The Cell

2.Carbohydrates

3.Amino Acids and Proteins

4. Glycolysis

5. Enzymes and enzymatic activity

6. Lipids 

And this wraps up the entire semester of biochemistry. So good luck to all my fellow classmates and lets all hope to make Biochem JM proud by getting those A+++++++’S..

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EXAM MCQs …….. something to keep those brain cells pumping :P

1. ATP made during glycolysis is generated by :

a. substrate-level phosphorylation

b. oxidative phosphorylation

c. reduction of NAD 

d. oxidation of reduced NAD 

2. Which of the following statements are true:

a. In the absence of NAD, glycolysis can function.

b. carbon dioxide is released in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate.

c. glucose is oxidised and oxygen is reduced.

d. the end products of glycolysis are reduced NAD and pyruvate.

3. If oxygen is available during the process of aerobic respiration, the maximum net number of ATP molecules that can be theoretically be produced from a molecule of glucose is:

a. 2

b. 4

c. 32

d. 38

HAVE FUN BIOCHEMIANS!!:)

PUBLISHED PAPER REVIEW- FATTY LIVER ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED SIRT3 ACTIVITY AND MITOCHONDRIAL PROTEIN HYPERACETYLATION

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Hey guys, it has recently been discovered that acetylation has emerged as a very important mechanism controlling quite a very large number of proteins which governs cellular adaptation to alot of metabolic fuels. Acetylation is known to control glycolysis and the TCA cycle. Acetylation is known to control and influence metabolic fuel utilization and is controlled by SIRTs or sirtuins as it is commonly known which functions as nutrients and redox centres  that modulate cellular function via deacetylation of lysine residues. It is key in metabolic pathways and also fat mobilization and is keyed to being associated with fatty liver since the metabolic rate of the breaking down of substances is notably influenced.

Reference to Article:

http://www.biochemj.org/bj/433/0505/4330505.pdf

REFLECTIONS: LIPIDS

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So today we are going to do an examination of something found in my hamburger…called LIPIDS. Lipids are commonly known as waxes or oils. They are  a group of chemically rich chemical  compounds that contain fatty acids.Fatty acids are long linear chains of hydrocarbons with a carboxyl group at one end (-COOH).

Animal bodies store energy in the  form of fats mostly, whilst plants store theirs as oils.

VERY IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER Is that saturated fats found in animals contain 0 and these types of fats which are  ever so present in my lovely burger contribute to heart disease…..so i think i should reconsider having another! Examples of these fats are:

1. Palmatic Acid- 16 carbons 

2. Steric Fatty Acid- 18 carbons

Unsaturated fats contain at least one double bond but these are found in plant sources and are wayyy healthier egs include oleic acid

Essential Fatty acids are required by our bodies and in our diet  as well :).

REFLECTIONS: GLYCOLYSIS PART 2 ……..A CONTINUATION….

This occurs in the cytosol and there is the entry into the TCA  cycle  where:

1. Pyruvate is converted into Acetyl CoA and then enters the Krebs Cycle.

2. The enzyme which does this is pyruvate dehydrogenase.

3. Co- factors of the enzyme are TTP, lipoate, FAD, COA-SH, NAD+ 

4. It goes from a 3-carbon to a 2-carbon via a decarboxylation reaction.

5. NAD+ to NADH occurs via a reduction reaction.

Fermentation…………..

1. Conversion of pyruvate to lactate.

2. Is converting NADH to NAD+

3. In any living organism there is a limited amount of NAD+,therefore there is the need to generate it.

Ethanol Fermentation………….

1. This involves two enzymes.

2. Pyruvate when yeast cells are added converts to acetaldehyde which in turn produces ethanol .The first reaction is irreversible whereas the second is reversible:)Image

REFLECTIONS: GLYCOLYSIS

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Hey guys ………….so it’s me again…..blogging a little bit on a topic i find rather interesting GLYCOLYSIS!

Did yall know that this is the first group of reactions to ever take place in respiration! Pretty awesome isn’t it. GLYCOLYSIS means breaking glucose apart.. and why would  we want to do that now? This is a metabolic pathway which takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell and glucose is broken  down by a series of steps each catalyzed by an enzyme.

Step One: a phosphate group is added to a glucose molecule which produces glucose-6-phosphate.This is known as photo phosphorylation.This raises the energy level of the compound.The phosphate group comes from an   ATP molecule which is converted to ADP in the process.

Step two: glucose- 6-phosphate produce fructose – 6-phosphate. These are isomers.

Step three: adding phosphate group to fructose-6-phosphate to form fructose bi phosphate  undergoing of a catalytic reaction.

Step four: triose phosphates are then oxidized to pyruvate.

End Product: two ADP molecules are converted to ATP for each triose phosphate. Glycolysis transfers some of the energy from within the glucose molecule to energy in ATP molecules…

REFLECTIONS: ENZYMES

There’s alot to know about enzymes and there capabilities because they are very active little fellows,with super big jobs. Life depends on these very powerful and specific catalyst….more so almost every biochemical reaction is catalyzed by one of these. Enzymes are classified by the type of reactions they catalyze… see they are very very specific.

Additionally, they are highly specific…taking their jobs very seriously and their reactions are characterized by the formation of a complex between the substrate and the enzyme. This is known as the active site…..

When substrates are added to enzymes, reactions rapidly achieves a steady state , and this state of a fixed concentration increases in hyperbolic fashion,to approach maximum potential, Vmax .

Reversible inhibition of an enzyme can be either competitive, uncompetitive or mixed. Also to be noted, enzymes functions best at an optimum pH…. so be sure to not overwork them otherwise they retire. 

So there’s a few things to remember about these hardworking fellows called ENZYMES!They impact upon our daily lives significantly….:)

ENZYMES WORDLE

ENZYMES WORDLE

hEY guys, feel free to check out my wordle based on enzymes and enzymatic activity… it may just make you recall some key processes we need to remember when dealing with enzymes

Enzymes fun animation and review

Goodnight to all you bloggers, i found this super kool animation on enzymes which is excellent for review and also it contains everything from our podcast videos…………Hope everyone enjoys it.

The Process of Glycolysis

Hey guys I uploaded a very useful video showing the process of glycolysis and i found it very simple and easy to follow… Enjoy!!